Punjabis challenged their exclusion and legal status in the U.S. by filing petitions in courts and lobbying in Washington D.C. At the same time, they were concerned with the political turmoil in India. They supported efforts to challenge British rule there, often citing America’s own struggle for independence. The community, though small in numbers, organized itself and provided funds for both issues.
Rolling the cursor over the year shows more information
- 1920 Bhagat Singh Thind applies for U.S. citizenship
- 1922 California Punjabis own 2,100 acres of land and lease another 86,000 acres
- 1923 U.S. v. Bhagat Singh Thind
- 1924 Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924, stops most immigration from Asia including India
- 1929 New building for the gurdwara in Stockton dedicated
- 1937 Golden Gate Bridge construction completed
- 1941 Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor; U.S. enters World War II
- 1941 Punjabis register with the draft board for military service
Letter from Secretary of State, Foreign Office; Hindu Race (people from India), not suitable for US citizenship (February 20, 1926).